I know it's not the season, but it is time to think about abortion because if ewes haven't been vaccinated before, now is the time to vaccinate for Vibrio.
Let us also revisit Polio. Polio is a disease that is created when an enzyme develops in the rumen that results in the animal not being able to produce it's own thiamine, vitamin B1. This condition often presents its self when lambs are on full feed
G.F. Kennedy, DVM
Pipestone Vet Clinic
Dr. J.D. Bobb
Fly season is well underway and the pesky creatures can be a nuisance and cause irritation and can lead to flystrike if left untreated. Any sheep or goat producer can attest to the amazing ability of these creatures to quickly multiply and harass livestock.
Most of us spend very little or no time thinking about flies and their life cycles or even the different types of flies. Just to list a few, there are stable flies, biting house flies, horse flies, black flies, gnats and even the sheep tick is really a wingless fly. They can spread disease such as pinkeye, and cause nasty infections on open wounds, and the worst is a maggot infected sheep that is not caught early.
The products used to control flies are numerous and most of them are very effective if used properly.
over the counter at your local veterinary clinic that will give excellent residual control for up to six weeks when sprayed on the walls and rafters of the barn area. Examples of residual fly control products are; Tempo SC, Grenade ER, Annihilator WP, Quick Bayt, and Actishield, there are more but these are ones I am familiar with. The residual fly control products are expensive but a little goes a very long way. Neporex is a granulated product that can be spread on the ground to help control fly populations.
Another way to control large populations of flies that have gotten out of control is to use a fogger that mists an entire area several days until you have the population under control.
Flies feed on the ground during the heat of the day and roost in the rafters or walls in the evening when temperatures drop. If you use granulated baits on the ground you need to create an area that the sheep will not be able to eat the bait which is toxic to livestock. Flies can be baited in an area that the morning sun shines onto, but livestock is not allowed to have access. All of the fly bait products contain toxic compounds that should be kept away from livestock. Many of the fogger products or sprays can be used on livestock and around livestock feed. Be sure to read the labels on the product you use.
I have seen lambs that had paralysis from fly bait.
One product that I have used for the past several summers is Quik Stike. It is a plastic strip aboutfour inches wide and a foot long that has a fly bait and an attractant combination on it.
It is safe because you hang it where the flies feed away from the sheep's reach.
I have seen piles of dead flies under the strips and they last most of the summer.
If you see a sheep with a soiled rear end, watch them very closely for fly strike. Once the flies lay their eggs on the edge of this soiled area they become maggots and begin to burrow and feed on the sheep.
The sheep in early stages looks irritated and constantly twitching its tail and getting up and down unable to help itself. If you let this condition go untreated for several days, it will debilitate the sheep and become extremely difficult to treat. Treatment is shearing the infected area until you have a margin of normal skin all the way around the soiled area. Then give the sheep a topical treatment for several days using a screw worm aerosol product or Catron IV product. The animal should also receive penicillin injections and be fed special until it regains its strength.
When using fly control products read the labels carefully and follow all the necessary precautions associated with the product.
Dr. G.F. Kennedy
From the 102 heat index in Sedalia to the great weather in Alaska that is the transition I have made in the last three days. I will be in Alaska the next couple weeks trying to catch the big one. We no longer run the lodge as a business in fact it is for sale but for now it is our summer vacation home. I enjoy it here but for some reason I enjoy taking care of my sheep and my daily contact with sheep people to much to make a three month commitment to the lodge business. Life's all about choices and commitment and presently my commitment is to the sheep industry.
This year we finally have cell service in our village so I will easily be able to maintain my E-mail service to sheep producers 24/7.
On our trip here we observed extra security when we boarded the plane in Minneapolis and we were surrounded by police cars when we arrived in Anchorage. John Boehner got off the Plane in Anchorage. Nice to see that this Speaker of the House utilizes public transportation in comparison to the last one that used a private jet.
I thought the Sedalia sales went well, we left on Thursday so hopefully the trend continued in to the weekend. The Katahdin people, including me, consigned too many rams but most still sold well and I am always on the hunt for a new stud ram, however, I really didn't find any sheep that I felt was a must have. The top selling ram consigned by Aspen Mountain was a maternal half brother to our Aspen Mountain stud ram that was our choice of rams when the expo was in Pipestone. Larry Mead continues to amaze me, the contributions that man has made to the purebred industry are immeasurable.
Looking back, I wish I had taken more time to go through the commercial exhibits and I spent only a small amount of time in the swine barn and missed the goats entirely. With 35 head in our consignment and the 102 heat index it was more of a matter of survival than anything. I won't be attending the Katahdin Expo this year do to three conflicts, Minnesota State Fair, grandson's wedding, and sixty year high school reunion. I believe one visit in the South in the summer is enough anyway but I am looking forward to the ASI meeting in January and hunting in New Mexico in October.
The company that makes PG 600 has added a new twist. They have extended the shelf life from two to three years and the product now requires refrigeration. My simple take on this is by requiring refrigeration they were able to extend the shelf life. They discontinued the single dose package so I am often asked what do I do with left over product? The answer is simple just freeze and thaw when needed next time.
I know it's not the season but it is time to think about abortion because if ewes haven't been vaccinated before, now is the time to vaccinate for Vibrio, 30 days prior to breeding. We recommend the Hygieia product. Enzootic abortion, if you choose to vaccinate for, require two injections prior to breeding at 60 and 30 days.
Let us revisit Polio. Polio is a disease that is created when an enzyme develops in the rumen that results in the animal not being able to produce it's own thiamine, vitamin B1. This condition often presents its self when lambs are on full feed, acidosis is believed to be involved. Feeds high in sulfur such as grain by products have been involved but occasionally it just happens so I don't really think we know the whole story. In a thiamine deficiency, dead spots occur in the brain. Animals almost always appear blind and are often found in lateral recumbency showing various central nervous signs. Treatment needs to be immediate, one half a gram of thiamine repeated at 12 hr. intervals until animal has recovered and then daily for several days. If caught early recovery is dramatic. If you go to my blog site there is a You Tube video of a lamb an hour after treatment when the lamb was in lateral recumbency throwing his head back . Every
Check out Polio on my blog site
Dr. G.F. Kennedy
This is the time of year when we may not be thinking abortion but should be. Prevention begins now. For those choosing to vaccinate for Enzootic Abortion, Chlamydia, previously non vaccinated animals need to be vaccinated 60 and 30 days prior to breeding. In subsequent years once thirty days prior to breeding. Another method to prevent Chlamydia abortion is to feed tetracycline antibiotics through out pregnancy at a 300mg per head per day daily or pulse feed 800 to 1000 mg for several days every couple weeks. In outbreaks injecting long acting Oxytetracycline, Biomycin every two weeks is helpful. Animals imported from far west seem most susceptible to Chlamydia infection. Eye and joint infections caused by Chlamydia are a different species and are not associated with abortion.
Vibrio, Campylobacter Fetus and Jejuni, along with Toxoplasmosis remain the primary causes of abortion. Protection for Vibrio is provided by vaccination 30 days prior to breeding and another at mid gestation. Subsequent years vaccination at mid gestation is adequate. I prefer the Hygieia product as I believe it is more effective against current Jejuni infections. Unlike Chlamydia abortion only some of the Vibrio organisms are tetracycline sensitive so sulfa is often used in clinical outbreaks such as 2gr AS700 at the rate of one pound per five head for ten days. I believe vaccination for Vibrio is a must.
Toxoplasmosis is another story. Prevention can be accomplished by feeding 15 to 30mg of Rumensin per head per day during pregnancy. Exposed animals have immunity so the disease caused by Toxoplasmosis, coccidiosis of cats, can be controlled by animals being exposed when not pregnant. So feed, contaminated by cat feces particularly kittens, may be a valued asset when fed to non pregnant animals. Deccox in the salt can also be used as a preventative, 2 pounds of 6% Deccox may be mixed with loose salt. It is recommended to keep a stable cat population. Depopulation of cats is not the answer.
I have enjoyed good results using AS700 in the presence of Toxoplasma abortion.
Avoid all procedures involving stress within 30 days window of pregnancy, vaccination, worming, sorting and working with dogs.
AS700 has become the treatment of choice in an abortion storm until a diagnosis is made.
In the face of abortion it is imperative that fetuses and placenta be submitted to a veterinary diagnostic lab for diagnosis so proper treatment and preventive measures can be taken.
June 1-August 31, 2013
If you have any questions, you can reach me firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also reach me on Facebook. There is a link on our website, Facebook is where my most interesting and recent questions are posted. It is not a chat site. If you have a question, send it to my email.
In closing, I would like to share this with you ...
"Until one has loved an animal, a part of one's soul remains unawakened.