Saturday, July 25, 2015

Goat Medication and How to Use Them

MEAT GOAT MEMOS

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Kipp Brown-Area Agent-4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service

P.O. Box 59 Carrollton, Ms 38917
662-237-6926
September, 2008
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Most producers should be getting ready for breeding season. Be sure to refer to past information on flushing (MSU publication 2177) and boost vaccinations of the breeding does as you prepare for the breeding season. It is important that you vaccinate the breeding animals and check parasite levels prior to breeding. The success of your kid crop in 2009 starts with a good health program implemented today.
I found some information that can provide you with practical and effective information concerning applications or treatment for most common problems goat producers face today. This is a listing of most products available for use in goats with most of them being off label or extra label in usage. Suzaane Gasparotto is not a veterinarian, but has practical experience with goats and is widely published on goat care and husbandry. I give credit to her for all information contained herein and provide this information exactly as printed from an article published on her web site. As with any product, please consult your veterinarian before any off label or extra label use. I hope you find this information to be helpful in your operation. Thanks to Ms Gasparotto for providing this information in a user friendly form for goat producers.

GOAT MEDICATIONS & HOW TO USE THEM


Suzanne Gasparotto, HC70 Box 70, Lohn, TX 76852, Phone-325-344-5775

Most medications used to treat goats, whether they are prescription or over the counter, are "off label" or "extra label" usage. Very little medication exists that has been specifically formulated for use on goats. Therefore, goat producers are always searching for new medications for their goats' health problems. Too much experimentation is going on with medications without the supervision of a qualified veterinarian. Compounding this situation is that in> many parts of this country, vets know little to nothing about treating goats. This column is written to try to overcome some of these problems.

First, the usual disclaimers. I am NOT a vet. I have been raising goats since 1990, and I have excellent vets upon whose advice I rely who are very qualified to treat goats. Use the information provided in this article at your own risk and only AFTER you have consulted with a qualified veterinarian. The medications are presented in alphabetical order; some of the medications are interchangeable with others, i.e. they provide the same treatment benefits but are being offered because specific products may not be available in all areas. I have not addressed withdrawal times for those producers concerned about meat and milk contamination. Some of the products may not be approved for use in food animals; Gentamycin and Baytril (but not Baytril 100) in particular are restricted from usage in certain breeds and jurisdictions.

A-180 (donofloxacin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic (Pfizer). Neither I nor my vet have been very pleased with this product. Nuflor and Excenel RTU (listed hereinbelow) have worked better for us.


Albon (Sulfadimethoxine 12.5%, or its generic equivalent) - These products are the drug of choice for preventing and treating Coccidiosis. Give orally undiluted to kids at a rate of 3-5cc and to adults at a rate of 5-10cc for five consecutive days. Mixing with drinking water as directed on the label is another option. Will not work with automatic waterers due to continual dilution of the product. Sick kids should be treated individually with oral dosing for five consecutive days. Buying the gallon jug is the most cost- effective purchase.


Banamine (FluMeglumine) - Vet prescription required. Anti-inflammatory that helps reduce fever, soothes irritation in the gastro-intestinal tract (gut) when diarrhea or other gut-related digestive illnesses occur, relieves pain and soreness associated with animal bites and other injuries. Should not be used but once daily except in severe cases where death is imminent, at which time the risk is worth the possible reward, because it builds up in vital organs and can cause permanent damage to the animal in the form of ulcerations in the digestive system. Dosage is 1 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM, but can be used at a rate of 1/2 cc per 25-30 lbs body weight if necessary. A newborn kid with fever and diarrhea at Onion Creek Ranch would receive an injection of no more than 2/10 cc IM. Keeps best in hot climates when refrigerated. Never be without this medication.


Baytril 100 (Enrofloxacin 100 mg/ml) - Vet prescription. Baytril 100 (not Baytril 2.27%) is approved for use in livestock. Approved for use in cattle in certain circumstances. Usage in goats is "off-label" or "extra-label," but this antibiotic is being used on goats by some veterinarians. The appropriate IM dosage is 4 cc's per 100 lbs. of body weight for a minimum of 3 consecutive days. Do not use the single-use dosage; goats need consecutive-day application. This medication is very effective against gut- related illnesses and works synergistically (better together than individually) with SMZ (sulfadimethoxazine with trimethoprim). Some jurisdictions prohibit use of Baytril or Baytril 100 in any form (injectable or tablets) in food-production animals; check with your vet. If you have a sick goat on which no other antibiotic is working, Baytril 100 is the ultimate in effective antibiotics.


Biosol (Neomycin Sulfate) - Over-the-counter sulfa-based antibiotic for using with scouring kids and adults when Coccidiosis is not the underlying illness. Works effectively against E.Coli and other digestive-system bacterial infections. For kids, give 3 cc orally every 12 hours until diarrhea has stopped and feces is normal. For adult goats, use 5 cc to 10 cc orally and as directed for usage in kids. Do not overdose; constipation can result.


BoSe and MuSe - Vet prescriptions are required for both products. ( MuSe should not be used with goats; it is too strong and is a horse medication. Use BoSe with goats.) Injectable medication for selenium deficiency. Since selenium deficiency exists at different levels throughout the United States, it is critical to follow your veterinarian's

directions on the usage of these products, as well as supplemental loose minerals containing selenium. See page 541 of Goat Medicine, by Dr. Mary Smith, for a map of the United States indicating areas of selenium deficiency. Most of the East Coast, down to Florida and westward through the Great Lakes region, plus the West Coast, including California and parts of Nevada and Idaho, are selenium deficient to different degrees.
Selenium deficiency shows itself in goats most often in the form of weak rear legs in kids. Older goats look "pathetic," don't put on weight, have weak legs, and generally stay in poor condition and poor health. Selenium deficiency causes Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy (White Muscle Disease).

Selenium is toxic at low dosages, and the dosing margin of safety is narrow. The addition of selenium to feed is controlled by US law. In some areas, producers only need to provide loose minerals containing selenium. In other regions, selenium injections are necessary. When injections are required, they are usually given at birth and again at one month of age (one-half cc IM). Pregnant does usually receive injections four to six weeks before kidding, and bucks usually are vaccinated twice a year. Adult dosage of BoSe is 2- 1/2 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM. It is critical that producers understand that selenium supplements must be determined and supervised by your veterinarian because selenium levels vary widely across the USA.

C&D Antitoxin - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that can be safely used for many problems. Severe diarrhea in very young kids, toxicity caused by plants, poisons (bites, overeating disease, bloat, ruminal acidosis, and ingestion of toxic sustances like azaleas and antifreeze are several examples), one of the products administered to combat Floppy Kid Syndrome . . . these are a few of the applications of this very versatile product which is almost impossible to overdose. This product provides short-term protection (about 12 hours) but works quickly towards solving the immediate problem. Follow label directions. Always have this product on hand; there is no substitute for it.

Must be refrigerated. C&D Antitoxin negates any protection previously given by the CD/T vaccine. Therefore, the producer must wait for at least five days after completion of C&D Antitoxin therapy and re-vaccinate the animal with the initial CD/T injection and the booster 30 days thereafter. This is extremely important to remember.

CD/T (Clostridium Perfringens Types C&D & Tetanus Toxoid - Tetanus Toxoid)- Over-the-counter made-for-goats product to provide long-term protection against overeating disease (types C&D) and tetanus. Newborn kids and newly-purchased animals should be vaccinated with 2 cc (kids at one month of age) and then a second vaccination should be given 30 days later (kids at two months of age). Two injections 30 days apart are required in order to provide long-term protection. Annually thereafter, one injection of 2 cc per animal will renew the protection. Give SQ. Do not be surprised if it makes a knot at the injection site. This is the body's reaction to the vaccination, and in most cases, it eventually goes away. Colorado Serum makes a CD/T vaccine called Essential 3+T that does not cause injection site reactions and is therefore highly recommended. CD/T is one of the few medications which is not based upon body weight. Every goat, from one month of age up to the biggest buck, should receive 2 cc SQ. Must be stored under refrigeration.

Colostrum Replacers and Supplements - Do not confuse these two types of products. Newborns must have colostrum during the first hours after birth. If the dam is colostrum deficient, the producer must use a colostrum replacer. The best colostrum replacer is frozen colostrum taken from does on your property who have already kidded. This colostrum will have the antibodies needed to provide the kids the needed immunity to the infectious organisms present in your particular location. If you don't have a supply of frozen colostrum, then you must use a commercially-prepared goat colostrum replacer (*not* "supplement"). *A reminder: Do not use colostrum or colostrum replacer beyond the first 48 hours of the kid's life. Switch to goat's milk or goat's milk replacer. Colostrum has already done its job for the newborn after 48 hours and the kid's body can better digest goat's milk.


CoRid (amprollium) - Over-the-counter product for preventing and treating eliminating coccidiosis. Comes in granular packets and gallon liquid. This product is a thiamine inhibitor, and most professionals are recommending against it use. Albon or its generic equivalent Sulfadimethoxine 12.5% is preferred over CoRid. However, if you must use CoRid, buy the gallon liquid and maintain better control over dosages. Follow package directions. Rule of Thumb: For prevention of coccidia, use 2 oz. per 15 gallons of water; for treatment, use 3 oz. CoRid per 15 gallons of water. Limit the goats' water supply to one source and treat for five consecutive days. For animals severely infected with the coccidia parasite, mix 1 oz CoRid in 5 oz. water and orally drench the sick goats twice a day for five consecutive days; kids should receive 20-40 cc of this mixture twice a day, while adults should receive 40-80 cc. This is a higher-than-label dosage but what it takes to control coccidia in goats. Use Thiamine (Vitamin B1) daily when using CoRid.


Dewormers, Feed-based - Feed-based dewormers are not effective, in this writer's studied opinion. Dewormers are dosed based on bodyweight; there is no accurate way to do this with feed-based dewormers. Further, the goat needing the dewormer the worst will also be the least aggressive goat who will get less feed, therefore a lower dosage of the feed-based dewormer.


Dexamethosone - Vet prescription. Cortico-steroid. Use sparingly, with great care, and preferably under the direction of a vet. Dex has bad side effects. Used for swelling and inflammation once infection is under control. Do not use if broken bones exist, because it interferes with bone repair. Can induce labor, so do not use on pregnant does. Used to induce labor in pregnant does when the slow introduction of labor over a 48-to-72 hour period is desired (example: Ketosis). Dex interferes with the functioning of the goat's immune system. Usage of this drug must be tapered off slowly; serious problems can occur if Dex is given in large amounts and then suddenly stopped. Tapering off over five days is a normal procedure, i.e. reducing the dosage each day for five consecutive days. Dosage varies depending upon the problem being treated. Keeps best in hot climates when refrigerated.


Dextrose Solution (50%) - Although this is an over-the-counter IV product in a bottle, use 50% Dextrose Solution with weak newborns by slowing dropping one or two cc in the mouth and under the tongue for quick energy. Can be mixed half and half with water

and offered short-term to weak goats or kids who are either having trouble digesting milk or have overeaten on milk (Floppy Kid Syndrome) and need to be taken off milk for several days until the toxicity caused by undigested milk has been removed from their bodies.

Diatomaceous Earth (DE) - This product is being used by some producers as a "natural" dewormer. There currently exists great controversy over DE; users are believers of an almost religious fervor. This writer has been unable to find any scientific evidence of DE's effectiveness in controlling internal parasites. It is somewhat effective on external parasites (flies). Every controlled test done to determine efficacy of this product in killing internal parasites (worms) in goats has failed. If a producer chooses to use DE as a food additive, make certain that "food-grade" DE is purchased and use DE in conjunction with an ethical (commercially-produced) deworming product. Check fecal samples regularly for worms while using DE.


Dopram - Vet prescription. Eliminates respiratory distress in newborns caused by troubled births, including C-sections. Drop 2/10 cc under kid's tongue immediately upon birth to stimulate lung activity. Use on "pulled" kids since the normal squeezing of the body during the delivery process is altered. This liquid medication keeps best under refrigeration.


Draxxin (tulothromycin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic. Very expensive product that purports to be a one-time-only usage antibiotic. Because goats have the fastest metabolism of all ruminants, they need to be dosed daily. Nuflor and Excenel RTU given daily work in my herd and are far less expensive.


Electrolytes, Oral (ReSorb or equivalent) - Over-the-counter product packaged in powered form. For rehydrating sick animals, regardless of age. Can be used as an oral drench, put into baby bottles for kids to suck, or mixed in drinking water. Each packet should be mixed with 1/2 gallon warm water. Use in conjunction with Lactated Ringers Solution on extremely dehydrated kids or adults. Store in a cool, dry place. Never be without this product.


Entrolyte - (Do not mistakenly purchase Entrolyte HE). Over-the-counter oral calf nutrient product packaged in powdered form. Like Re-Sorb, Entrolyte is made by Pfizer and packaged similarly. However, unlike ReSorb (which both sides of the package have to be mixed together with water), each side of the two-sided Entrolyte packet is useable on its own. For rehydrating and providing nutrition to sick goats who are not ruminating or otherwise not eating. Contains 13+% protein in addition to electrolytes. Stomach tube this complete feed for goats off-feed. A 100 lb goat needs one gallon of fluids daily. Start slowly, dividing the dosages into two to four dosings.


Epinephrine - Now a prescription product (used to be available over-the-counter). Used to treat Shock. Very inexpensive. Never be without it. Always have it on hand when giving injections. You will not have time to go get it. Dosage is 1 cc SQ or IM per 100 pounds body weight.

Essential 3+T - Over-the-counter vaccine for prevention of overeating disease and tetanus. By Colorado Serum. Highly recommended for not causing injection-site reactions.


Excenel RTU - Prescription injectable antibiotic. Ready-to-use equivalent of Excenel. Effective against respiratory and urinary tract infections. Dose daily at 3 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight. Day One: dose twice 12 hours apart. Days 2 through 5: dose once every day. This writer prefers Excenel RTU's usage with kids, but it is useful with goats of all ages.


Ferrodex 200 iron injection - Injectable iron supplement for treating anemia. Interchangeable with Red Cell or Lixotinic.


Fleet's Enemas - Over-the-counter product that is also useful for constipation and toxicity reactions to clean out the intestinal tract. If a doeling is born with her vagina turned inside out, use a children's Fleet's enema (or generic equivalent) to move her bowels for the first time ("pass her plug") and the vagina will return to its proper position. Make sure to put the enema into the rectal opening . . . not the vagina.


Formalin (10% buffered formaldehyde) - Classified as a disinfectant, this product works well when injected into CL abscesses and also is very effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald. See this writer's articles on these topics on the Articles page at www.tennesseemeatgoats.com for usage and dosing instructions.


Fortified Vitamin B Complex - Over-the-counter product. This product can be used interchangeably with Thiamine when Thiamine alone is needed since it has 100 mg/mL thiamine in it. Products without "fortified" in the label have inadequate levels of thiamine present. If such products must be used, then the dosage must be increased to achieve a thiamine level of 100 mg/mL. Example: If the product has only 25 mg/mL, then the dosage given must be four times the "fortified" product's amount. B vitamins are water soluble; a healthy rumen produces B vitamins daily. B vitamins may be given to any sick goat. Use thiamine dosage.


Gentamycin Sulfate - Injectable prescription antibiotic. Not authorized for use in all jurisdictions in food animals due to concern for antibiotic build-up in meat. Mixed in equal parts with Dexamethazone and Sterile Water, the resulting product is a very effective eye spray for treating Pinkeye. Do not use on ulcerated eyes.


Gentosin Spray - Topical prescription spray useful in treating non-ulcerated eyes having Pinkeye. See Gentamycin Sulfate.


GoatADE - Oral quick energy supplement for stressed and/or off-feed goats. This product is sold by Register Distributing. (http://www.goatsupplies.com). Contains many of the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients that a sick goat requires to survive its illness.

Superior to NutriDrench. Mixes well with propylene glycol and mineral oil for flavored dosing.

Immodium AD - Do NOT use this anti-diarrheal with goats.. It can stop the peristaltic action of the gut, causing rapid and painful death.


Ivomec 1% injectable dewormer - Over-the-counter product for eliminating stomach worms. This clear liquid works best if used orally at a rate of 1 cc per 50 lbs. body weight. Do not under-dose. Store at cool temperature and keep out of sunlight. Achieves a quicker "kill" via oral dosing. Also used in treatment of Meningeal Deerworm Infection. Clear dewormers do not kill tapeworms.


LA 200, Maxim 200, Biomycin (oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml) - Over-the-counter broad- spectrum antibiotic. Thick (use an 18 gauge needle and give SQ over the ribs) and may sting. Oxytretracycline 200 mg/mL must be used to treat abortion "storms." No vaccines are available to treat abortion diseases in goats and no off-label vaccines are effective in preventing abortion diseases in goats. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is the goat producer's only choice. Also used to treat Pinkeye, even in pregnant does, because an abortion- causing organism can cause one strain of Pinkeye. Used both injectably for all Pinkeye and topically (in non-ulcerated eyes) for Pinkeye. Effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald infections. Use 1 cc per 20 lbs. body weight SQ daily for a minimum of five consecutive days. The non-sting version of oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is called Biomycin.

Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is sold under several brand names; check the content label for correct 200 mg/ml strength. Turns a dark red when opened and air enters the bottle, but if kept under controlled climatic conditions and used before the expiration date, it should work fine.

Lactated Ringers Solution - Vet prescription. For rehydrating kids and young goats. Comes in IV bag but use SQ. Using a 60 cc syringe with an 18 gauge needle attached, draw up LRS, warm in a pot of water, check temperature as you would a bottle of milk for proper heat, and inject 30 cc under the skin (SQ) at each shoulder. Can be used several times a day until the goat's electrolytes are in balance. Will be absorbed by the goat's body very quickly if dehydration is present. Never be without this inexpensive life- saving product. Can be used in conjunction with oral electrolytes (ReSorb). Refrigerate when storing.


Lixotinic - This over-the-counter oral dog product can be purchased at feed stores and mail-order houses. Used in the treatment of severe anemia. Severe anemia is normally the result of a heavy worm load. Lixotinic should be administered daily via mouth for at least one week in no less than three cc amounts for an average-sized goat.


Lutalyse -- Prescription injectable. Used to cycle does into heat or induce abortion in doe accidentally bred to wrong buck. Give 2 cc on the seventh (7th) day after observed breeding. Do not repeat.


Micotil - Never use Micotil with goats. This cattle antibiotic causes heart attack and death in goats -- and quickly too.

Milk of Magnesia - Over-the-counter laxative product that is u - seful for constipation and toxicity reactions (to move toxic materials through and out of the body), including bloat, overeating disease, and Floppy Kid Syndrome. Use as oral drench at a rate of 15 cc per 60 lbs. body weight every four to six hours until the feces goes from normal to clumpy then back to normal 'pills.' Always keep the animal hydrated with electrolytes (ReSorb or equivalent) when using Milk of Magnesia or other laxatives. Keep MoM on hand at all times.


Mineral Max (MinMax) - Vet prescription. Cobalt-blue colored injectable liquid that must be used very sparingly in goats suffering from severe mineral deficiencies.

Overdosing is easy.

Mineral Oil - Over-the-counter laxative product. Because mineral oil has no taste, a goat's throat does not recognize mineral oil as a substance to be swallowed; this product can easily be aspirated into the lungs. Must be stomach tubed. If stomach tube is not immediately available, mix mineral oil with GoatADE to flavor it and very carefully and slowly orally drench it into the goat's mouth.


Molasses/Karo Syrup - Use orally with kids when quick energy is needed. Can be substituted for propylene glycol when treating ketotic does.


Kopertox - Over-the-counter product for hoof rot and hoof scald. Blue-green liquid for topical application as a "liquid bandage." Applied topically to the hoof and used in conjunction with Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml injections.


Naxcel (ceftiofur sodium) - Vet prescription. Broad-spectrum antibiotic used primarily at Onion Creek Ranch for respiratory illnesses (pneumonia). Comes in two bottles . . . one bottle contains a powder which must be kept refrigerated even while in powder form, and the other bottle is sterile water. When the two are mixed, they keep for only seven days. Draw syringes in dosages of 1/2 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc, and 3 cc, put needle caps on them, place the filled syringes in a ziplock bag, label and date it, and put the bag in the freezer. Syringes thaw quickly, but hold the needle cap upright, because the medication will settle into the needle cap and will be lost when the needle cap is removed. . Dosages on the bottle are insufficient for goats. If newborn kids have respiratory distress or E.Coli infections, they must receive a minimum dosage IM of 1/2 cc daily for five consecutive days. A 100 pound goat needs at least 5-6 cc of Naxcel IM over the five-day course of treatment. This writer no longer uses Naxcel but instead uses Excenel RTU, the ready-to- use equivalent product that doesn't require refrigeration or mixing.


Nuflor (florfenicol) - Vet prescription. Excellent respiratory antibiotic that is also used to try to prevent mastitis from becoming systemic. This writer tends to use Nuflor on adults and Excenel RTU on kids, but they are interchangeable. Administered IM every day for a maximum of five injections. This is a very thick liquid, so use Luer Lock syringes, or the needle may blow off the syringe, wasting the medicine. Dosage is 3 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight and is administered for five consecutive days; kids should receive no less than 1/2 cc. Keeps best under refrigeration in warm climates. NOTE: Because goats have

the fastest metabolism of all ruminants, off-label medications that state every-other-day usage or one-time usage do not work. Goats must have daily administrations of medications.

Oxytocin - Vet prescription. Used at Onion Creek Ranch when a doe kids and does not pass her afterbirth. Must be used before the cervix closes (within approximately five hours after kidding). Causes contractions that expel the afterbirth. This is not a comfortable experience for the doe, so use it sparingly. Dosage is 1.5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight. In warm climates, keeps best when refrigerated.


Penicillin, Benzathine (long-acting penicillin) - This over-the-counter antibiotic has been overused for years and is no longer effective against some illnesses. Dosage is 5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM for five consecutive days. Must be refrigerated. Do NOT use this type of penicillin when Listeriosis or Goat Polio is the suspected illness.


Penicillin, Procaine (300,000 IU) - Procaine Penicillin must be used in high dosages in conjunction with Thiamine (Vitamin B1) in the treatment of Listeriosis and Goat Polio. Also is used to treat infection resulting from injuries, bites, and after difficult birthings. Over-the-counter product. Must be refrigerated. Always have this product on hand.


Pepto Bismol (pink bismuth) - Over-the-counter product to help with irritation/distress caused by diarrhea in both kids and adults. Use up to 2 cc every four to six hours for newborns; 5 cc for kids approaching one month old; as much as 10 to 15 cc for adults.

Before using Pepto-Bismol when diarrhea is present, first determine the cause of the problem. See my article on Diarrhea on my website's Articles page: http://www.tennesseemeatgoats.com. Follow up with oral ruminant probiotics to repopulate the gastro-intestinal tract (gut) with live bacteria needed for digestion. Do not use Immodium AD to control diarrhea in goats; it can stop the peristaltic action of the gut and cause death.

Pneumonia Vaccine (Mannheimia Haemolytica Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin) - Over-the-counter injectable pneumonia vaccine by Colorado Serum. Made for goats. Requires two initial injections of 2 cc each 30 days apart for all young goats and any new purchases brought onto the property, then booster annually thereafter. Follow bottle directions. Give first injection at one month of age in conjunction with first deworming and first CD/T vaccination. Repeat at two months of age, then annually thereafter.

Dosage is 2 cc for all goats, regardless of age, sex, weight, or breed. Never be without this valuable product.

Polyserum or Bovi Sera - Over-the-counter injectable immune system boosters. Given SQ. Advisable to use with any ill goat.


Primor - Vet prescription. Oral sulfa-based antibiotic. Tablets sized by weight of animal for gut-related infections, including Coccidiosis. Tablets are scored for easy breaking to fit appropriate weight of sick animal. Primor 120 is for 5-15 lb goats; Primor 240, 10-30 lb goats; Primor 600, 25-50 lb goats; and Primor 1200, 50-100 lb goats. Give two times

the appropriate weight's dosage the first day, and then dose to the goat's weight for the next 9 consecutive days.

Probiotics, Oral - Over-the-counter oral ruminant gel which should be used in conjunction with antibiotic therapy, treatment for diarrhea (scours), and when shipping goats. Take along several tubes and administer it to each animal at least once per day during the journey. Helps lessen stress and settle the stomach. Probios is a well-known brand name, but Register Distributing in Wade, North Carolina sells the best probiotic. It is called Goat Guard Probiotic and can be purchased at http://www.goatsupplies.com or call 1-888-310-9606. Register Distributing has a new version available called Synguard Probiotic. Keep refrigerated in warm climates.


Propylene Glycol - Over-the-counter clear oily liquid for ketosis in does. Provides quick energy. Comes in one-gallon containers. Use 50-60 cc twice a day for an average-sized adult doe until she begins eating again. Administer orally very slowly and best if mixed with GoatADE for flavor so the goat can taste it and know to swallow. If this product is not available, use molasses or Karo syrup. Freezes at temperatures well above 32*F, so store indoors under controlled temperature.


Rally or Recover - Injectable antihistamine for toxicity problems.


Red Cell - Over-the-counter oral iron supplement made for horses. Use in treating anemia. Interchangeable in usage with Lixotinic or Ferrodex 100 iron injections.


Safeguard (Panacur) dewormer - Another "white" dewormer. Currently worthless in killing stomach worms in most areas, despite claims on label. Does kill tapeworms.


Spectam Scour Halt - Over-the-counter sulfa-based antibiotic product to control diarrhea in kids. Scour Halt is a pig scour medication which works well on goat kids. Usage with adult goats may cause cessation of peristaltic action of the gut and possible death. Follow label directions when pumping this pinkish-red liquid into the goat's mouth. Follow up with oral ruminant gel to repopulate the gut with live bacteria necessary for food digestion.


Sterile Water - Amazingly, this product is a prescription. Used in mixing medications.


Sulfadimethoxazine with Trimethoprim (SMZ) - Sulfa-based oral prescription antibiotic. Available in both liquid and tablets. Use to treat watery diarrhea and other gut- related illnesses. Used with Baytril 100, SMZ is synergistic (better than by itself) in treating E Coli and other difficult to cure infections.


Synergized DeLice or generic equivalent - Over-the-counter product. Permethrin is the active ingredient in this oily product which should be applied along the backbone from base of neck to base of tail. (This back drench works on goats because external parasites are the target; back drenches don't work for treating internal parasites such as stomach worms.) Follow the directions carefully, and do not use on kids under one month old.

Safe for pregnant does. Maximum application is three ounces per animal, regardless of weight. Use a discarded permanent squeeze bottle to apply this product; beauty shops will save them for you. The bottle tip is just the right size. For kids under one month of age who have lice, use a kitten-safe or puppy-safe powdered flea control product or carefully apply 5% Sevin dust. These products contain pyrethrins, which are much safer for very young animals.

Tagamet - Over-the-counter product. Use in conjunction with Primor for gut-related pain resulting from illnesses like coccidiosis. Dosage is one half of a Tagamet HR200 (200 mg) for 3-5 days.


Terramycin - Over-the-counter product. Opthalmic ointment used to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.


Tetanus Antitoxin - Over-the-counter product for immediate and short-term protection against tetanus (lockjaw). Tetanus is fatal if not promptly treated. Comes in single-dose vials; use the entire vial IM for adults; cut it back proportionately for kids. No sooner than five days after this medication is last used, the producer will have to re-vaccinate with tetanus toxoid or CD/T (the complete two-injection series given 30 days apart) to reinstate long-term protection. Keep refrigerated.


Theodur - Vet prescription. Often used when bronchitis exists to clear air passages. Precise dosage is not known for goats, but this writer has, under vet direction and supervision, use 1/2 tablet per day on a 15-20 pound kid. Theodur suppresses the appetite; the producer must make sure that the animal is kept hydrated.


Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - Vet prescription. Used in conjunction with large dosages of antibiotics to treat listeriosis and goat polio, diseases which demand veterinary assistance or death is highly likely. Moldy feed and hay cause these illnesses. Dosage is 1 cc per 35 pounds bodyweight up to three times per day IM, SQ, or orally. Keeps best in warm climates when refrigerated.


ToDay (cephapirin sodium) Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in lactating does. Milk out the bad milk/pus/blood and infuse one tube of To-Day into each infected udder for a minimum of two consecutive days. Use the alcohol wipe provided to clean the teat thoroughly before infusing medication to avoid introducing new bacteria into an already-infected udder.


ToMorrow (cephapirin benzathine) - Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in dry does.


Triple Antibiotic Opthalmic Ointment - Vet prescription. Use topically to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.


Tylan 200 (tylosin) - Over-the-counter antibiotic for respiratory problems. Use 1 cc per 25 lbs. body weight for five consecutive days intramuscularly (IM). Keeps best in warm

climates when refrigerated. The prescription products Nuflor and Excenel RTU are far more effective than Tylan 200.

Valbazen - Over-the-counter "white" dewormer. Causes abortion in pregnant does at certain points in the pregnancy (very high risk of abortion if used in first trimester of pregnancy). For safety, never use on pregnant does. "White" dewormers kill tapeworms. Dosage is 1 cc per 25 lbs. bodyweight given orally.


Vitamin B-12 - Vet prescription. This red-colored injectable liquid is essential for use with goats who are anemic from worms or stressed from just about any illness.

Administer 2 cc per 100 lbs. body weight. Keeps best refrigerated.

This listing is not comprehensive, but is a good overview of medications available for goat health problems. I repeat . . . I am NOT a vet. I do NOT encourage anyone to use these products and/or dosages without the direct supervision and direction of a veterinarian. I write this article primarily to convince goat producers to develop a relationship with a good goat vet and rely heavily on that person's expertise. Secondarily, I want to stop producers from experimenting with medications on goats which in many instances result in their deaths. This is what has worked for me in my area of the USA with my goats. Many variables can affect the usefulness of this information, some of which could include the breed, sex, age, and reproductive status of the goat, nutritional status, the climatic conditions and general cleanliness under which the goats live, and a host of other variables. Consider this listing to be a guide by which you are pointed to a qualified vet in order to obtain help for YOUR animals. Remember, what works for me may NOT work for you in your goat-production operation.

Important! Please Read This Notice!


All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers.

In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Neither tennesseemeatgoats.com nor any of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.

I made a copy of these recommendations and posted it in the barn so that I will not have to draw from a failing memory when considering treatment options for a given condition. Once a treatment is decided, be sure to contact your veterinarian to discuss the treatment method and product. Only administer off label or extra label products after receiving the approval of your veterinarian. Additional articles and information from Suzanne Gasparotto on meat goats is available on her

Common Diseases in Goats

Common Diseases in Goats

Kipp Brown-Area Agent-4-H Livestock/Meat Goat-Mississippi State University Extension Service


Ketosis

Ketosis (also known as pregnancy toxemia) may occur in pregnant does late in their pregnancy. The doe may be depressed, weak, uninterested in food, and have poor muscle control and balance. If untreated, death follows within a few days. Early in the disease, many does will show a positive test for ketone bodies in the urine. Ketosis may occur when the doe is carrying two or more kids, or when the doe is very fat. This disease is caused by the sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing kids in the pregnant goat and the inability of the goat to eat enough of her normal diet to provide this energy (due to the kids taking up room in the body). The doe will rapidly metabolize fat from her body stores producing ketones (a toxic by-product) and the symptoms of the disease. Treatment with propylene glycol at two to three ounces twice a day will help. If the doe lies down and cannot stand, treatment is usually not successful unless she delivers at that time. As a preventive measure, do not let the doe get fat early in pregnancy and in the last month of pregnancy provide 1-2 pounds of grain in addition to hay.

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Syndrome (CAE)

CAE is a viral disease. In young kids symptoms include a weakness in the rear legs, with no fever, or loss of appetite, However, the unused legs lose muscle strength and structure and the infected kids eventually die. In older goats, the same disease is seen as swollen joints, particularly the knees. The disease develops slowly, and after 2 or more years, the animal has difficulty using its legs properly. Infected goats have no fever, remain alert, and eat well.
However, they do not recover from the arthritis. An inexpensive blood test can be used to diagnose CAE. The disease is spread from older infected goats to kids, perhaps by contact or through the milk from an infected doe to her kid. There are no corrective procedures or treatments. Isolating kids at birth and raising them on pasteurized goat milk is done to prevent the spread. It's a good idea to make sure a goat is CAE free before purchasing. However, the blood test only checks for antibodies, and it's possible that an animal is infected and not (yet) producing antibodies.

Mastitis

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder or milk-giving gland) of animals, usually caused by bacteria. The symptoms of mastitis are heat, pain, and swelling of the udder. Usually you will notice some discoloration of the tissue and abnormal milk. The infected udder will change in color from slightly more pink to a bright red, or to a black and cold udder. The milk from an infected udder will vary in color, texture, and thickness. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a good test for subclinical mastitis, but is not 100% accurate. Laboratory culture or growth of the bacteria causing the mastitis is the best way to determine the exact diagnosis. The causes of mastitis are most commonly rough treatment and unclean milking practices. Wash the goat's udder before milking, and dip (or spray) the teats after milking with a teat dip. Wash your hands before milking each goat to prevent the spread. The treatment consists of an intramammary infusion of antibiotics, sometimes accompanied by additional antibiotics.
Consulting a vet is important for this disease since there are many different bacteria that cause
mastitis and different antibiotics are best for each. If untreated the infection spreads and the goat may die or lose the udder.

Acidosis

A drastic change in feed and possibly too much corn in the goat’s diet most commonly causes acidosis. When goats eat high concentrate rations, not only do the starches produce more acid, but the lack of roughage causes a decreased amount of saliva.
Symptoms of acidosis include: Bloat, rapid breathing and/or lethargic behavior (staring out into "space"). If your goat is diagnosed with Acidosis, you should treat him or her immediately. Acidosis is potentially fatal, and if it does not kill your goat, it can burn the rumen and kill good bacteria leading to other diseases. Allow the animal to drink lots of water, use antacid preparations like milk of magnesia, oral tetracycline to prevent bacterial overgrowth, probiocin or rumen contents from a healthy ruminant and thiamine or B-complex vitamins.

Enterotoxemia (Over-eating disease)

Enterotoxemia, also known as "over-eating disease", is caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringins. This bacterium is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of goats and normally, is not a problem. However, there are certain conditions which trigger excessive bacterial growth in which lethal amounts of toxin are produced, resulting in death of the animal. Enterotoxemia can have no symptoms or symptoms such as diarrhea that are commonly confused with other diseases, so prevention is a MUST. Vaccinate kids once a month from the time they are 1 month old until they are 5-6 months old. Be sure to use a vivalent C&D vaccine. Treatment for the disease can be unrewarding, if your goat has already been diagnosed. Recoveries are rare, but affected goats can be treated with Clostridium antitoxin, pencillin and flunixen.

Lice

Goats have both biting and sucking lice. Many sprays are effective but resistance can occur to any of them. It is best twice 10-14 days apart to remove young lice before they mature. Cylence is effective and also works well for flies. The avermectins and moxidectins also help kill lice. Mange can be treated the same way but also treat topically with Prolate (hog spray) or a Permethrin product. Treat every 5 days till the hair starts to grow back(mange) or you see no sign of lice. Slick shearing a goat will also help kill the lice population. Be sure to treat or remove bedding in sheds and pens.

Pinkeye

This disease is usually caused by Chlamydia or Mycoplasma in goats, and is not related to Moraxella bovis, which causes pinkeye in cattle. It is contagious, but species specific. Pinkeye can be brought on by stress. Early signs of Pinkeye include runny, red, and swollen eyes. The dark part of the eye (cornea) becomes hazy and then turns opaque (clouds over). The goat begins to lose its sight. If left untreated, blindness can occur.
Most goats recover without any treatment however, so be certain the treatment you choose does not cause any harm. If the eye looks like it is going to rupture, a
conjunctivial or third eyelid flap should be used to protect the eyeball. If your goat has been diagnosed with pinkeye, there are a few means of treatment. If the eye has not ulcerated, apply tetracycline (Terramycin) ophthalmic ointment three or four times a day (minimum twice a day) , using disposable gloves to prevent spread of the infection.
Powders and aerosols are not recommended because they can be more irritating especially if the eye is ulcerated. In severe cases of Pinkeye, injectable oxytetracycline (LA200 or equivalent) may be used in addition to topical eye ointments. If the goat is pregnant, however, remember that oxytetracycline is known to interfere with bone and teeth formation in the unborn kid.

Soremouth

Soremouth is spread by a parapoxvirus that is highly contagious. It is more commonly found in sheep than goats, however goats are still susceptible. It affects primarily the lips and noses of young animals. If they are nursing off dams which have not previously had the disease or been vaccinated, the dams will also display identical sores on the teats and udder where it may cause mastitis. The sores start as small red spots which form blisters that burst to form ulcers. These are followed by characteristic grayish-brown cauliflower- like scabs. There will be spontaneous healing and the scabs will fall off in about three weeks. The skin at the corona of the hooves can also be affected. To prevent the disease, there is a soremouth vaccine that is available, but because it is a live virus vaccine, many farmers have mixed feelings whether the vaccine helps or hurts. We suggest you speak with your vet to see if the vaccine would be beneficial to your goat or flock. If your goat has been diagnosed with soremouth, immediately isolate him or her from the rest of the herd. You can apply antibotical cream to the infected area to prevent secondary diseases. (Antibiotics WILL NOT kill a virus, they only work on bacteria.)

Coccidiosis

Coccidia are tiny intestinal parasites, actually protozoans, which can cause foamy, bloody diarrhea or a dull, dry coat. Sometimes a goat with coccidiosis (coccidia infestation) has an on- again-off-again soft stool or no obvious symptoms at all. You might not suspect a problem until you notice that your kids are not growing as well as they should. Coccidiosis is characterized by a foul smelling diarrhea and along with diarrhea comes dehydration and fever. The organism, which causes Coccidiosis, is an intestinal parasite named Coccidiosis and the oocysts are present to some degree in all goats. Babies are particularly susceptible to the disease because their immune systems are not developed. It is passed through fecal-to-oral contact, usually as babies first begin to eat solid foods. If your goat has been diagnosed with Coccidiosis, Banamine (prescription required) should be administered intramuscularly (IM) at a rate of 1 cc per 100 pounds of body weight. Banamine should not be used but once every 36-72 hours, because it causes stomach ulcers if used too frequently. A severely dehydrated goat should receive Re-Sorb electrolytes, both in an oral drench and in the water bucket. Young kids up to four months of age are at highest risk and should be treated at least once with the medication Albon or Corid. Our veterinarian recommends that they receive Albon or Corid for one week beginning at about three or four weeks of age and again if they are very stressed, such as when separated from their mother. If in doubt, take a stool sample to a veterinarian who regularly treats goats.

Urinary Calculi

Male goat (buck) kids that are not being kept as future herd sires are usually castrated so that they will no longer be fertile. It is less traumatic to castrate the kid when he is very young but this will make him more susceptible to urinary calculi because his urethra (the tube that carries his urine from his bladder to the opening in his penis) will not develop to its full size and is easier to clog up.
Urinary calculi occur when the urethra gets blocked up with mineral deposits and urine cannot pass through it. If the deposits or "stones" are not somehow passed or dissolved, the kid’s bladder will burst and he will die. Ideally, you should wait until your kid is 10 weeks old to castrate him but this is not always possible. Other preventions for urinary calculi that you should practice include:
  1. Feeding a ration with a 2:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio,
  2. Adding ammonium chloride to his feed at a rate of about 15 lbs. per ton of feed or else giving him about ½ ounce (about a tablespoon) to 1 ounce (2 tbsp.) per day depending on his size unless his feed already contains it,
  3. Making sure he gets plenty of exercise and drinks lots of water (keep his water in the shade if hot and unfrozen if cold, always have salt available to him), and
  4. Checking daily to make sure he is urinating easily without straining and has no blood in his urine.

Sunday, July 19, 2015

Can you recognize Coccidia?

Can you recognize coccidia?

Un-thrifty goats, underweight, dull coats, staring eyes with blank expressions, scours... all these things can be signs of coccidia. A preventative course ofDimethox for babies can prevent this potentially deadly parasite infection, and the correct treatment when signs are observed can save a life. But you have to act fast to ensure that long-lasting effects are avoided. 
Read more about coccidiosis here - including links to the Merck Veterinary Manual and all the latest University research